All posts tagged 'BOEM'

Contrary Legal Winds at Cape Wind - Opponents of Offshore Wind Sue Asserting Preemption

February 9, 2014 22:34
by J. Wylie Donald

Would you care to hazard a guess at how long it takes to bring online an offshore wind farm in the United States?  At the moment, it is 12+ years and counting.  A recent court filing arguing constitutional questions is certain to slow it down some more.

In 2001 Cape Wind Associates, LLC, submitted an application to the United States Army Corps of Engineers for a permit to construct an offshore wind power facility in Nantucket Sound.  About 9 years later Cape Wind finally procured the approval to move forward from the Department of the Interior.  Cape Wind then got down to work and by November 2012 had signed the first U.S. commercial offshore wind lease and long-term power purchase agreements with National Grid and NSTAR Electric Co.  Cape Wnd's Construction and Operations Plan was approved by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.  According to Cape Wind it is now seeking out its project financing.

But a new hurdle has surfaced.  At the end of January, various plaintiffs - the Town of Barnstable, businesses, a non-profit environmental
organization, and individuals - all users within NSTAR's electric service area, sued various Massachusetts governmental entities, as well as NSTAR and Cape Wind (see Complaint attached).  Their goal is

"a declaration that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts violated both the dormant Commerce Clause and the Supremacy Clause when it used its influence over NSTAR's merger request to bring about NSTAR's entry into an above-market wholesale electricity contract with Cape Wind, a politically favored renewable energy project in Massachusetts, to buy electricity at a particular price."

The plaintiffs also seek injunctive relief to invalidate the power purchase agreement between NSTAR and Cape Wind.

Plaintiffs' theories are based on the following premise:  "Massachusetts regulators used their influence over a merger request by NSTAR ..., to bring about NSTAR's purchase of electricity from Cape Wind ..., an in-state renewable energy project, on particular terms." The legal theories are two-fold. First, the Federal Power Act gives the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission exclusive jurisdiction over wholesale electricity rates, charges and terms.  Thus, plaintiffs assert, Massachusetts' acts dictating favorable terms for wholesale electricity sales by Cape Wind to NSTAR are preempted by the Federal Power Act.  Second, because Massachusetts' acts in effect favor an in-state electricity provider over out-of-state providers, Massachusetts is unlawfully discriminating in violation of the "dormant" Commerce Clause of the Constitution. 

These theories recently are exceedingly popular in the energy space.  Although the dormant Commerce Clause has not persuaded a federal judge, in 2013 preemption was used successfully to challenge state requirements for gas-fired generation in Maryland (PPL Energy Plus LLC v. Nazarian) and New Jersey (PPL Energyplus v. Hanna).  Although both decisions are on appeal, if affirmed, they have significant implications for the viability of state renewable portfolio standards. Notwithstanding that dozens of states have RPSs, the argument will be that RPSs regulate rates, charges and terms by implication, even if the legislative, regulatory and contract drafters assiduously leave rates, charges and terms out of their writings.

One commentator, however, points out that "the FERC has never indicated that a state's RPS program that includes a directive to utilities to acquire wholesale renewable energy under long-term contracts to be a violation of the FERC's exclusive jurisdiction under the Federal Power Act."  So this may be much ado about nothing; time will tell.  In the meantime, Cape Wind continues to be delayed.

 

20140121 Cape Wind Complaint.pdf (253.06 kb)

Wind Energy | Utilities

Blow the Man Down. US Offshore Wind Farm Leasing Takes a Big Step Forward

February 3, 2012 10:47
by J. Wylie Donald

Yesterday was a banner day for offshore wind farms in the mid-Atlantic.  Promoters and advocates received a favorable environmental assessment, a new form and two calls for nominations. 

The Environmental Assessment.  Secretary Ken Salazar of the Department of the Interior gave wind developers a big boost when he announced the Department's decision to move forward with government leases of offshore areas for wind farms. This comes at a crucial time for wind turbine manufacturers; Danish turbine giant Vestas A/S announced last month that it would be closing one factory, laying off ten percent of its work force in light of the recession and increased competition from China, and considering additional layoffs in the United States. 

The Department's finding of "no significant impact" from activities related to site assessment such as geotechnical surveys or the installation of meteorological towers opens the door to the gathering of data without completion of a further environmental impact statement.  Completion of the environmental assessment is not a green light for all projects, but it is estimated that it will take two years off the planning and construction schedule.  Specific projects still will need to complete an environmental impact statement.  One issue, for example, may be birds. The red knot, an intercontinental migrating species of sandpiper, flies almost twenty thousand miles each year from Brazil to Canada and back, stopping off for saltwater taffy along the Delaware Bay. Birdkill is a substantial problem for wind farm operators. Efforts to put the red knot on the federal endangered species list will only make solving that problem harder.

New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia are all excited about the potential opportunities. Governor McDonnell (a Virginia Republican) wants to make Virginia the Energy Capital of the East Coast.   Governor O'Malley (a Maryland Democrat) noted:  “We need the energy. We have the resources. We need the jobs, and we need a more renewable and cleaner, greener future for our kids.”  

The Lease Form.  To streamline the issuance of wind farm leases on the Outer Continental Shelf the Department's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management put together a "first-of-its-kind" lease form, BOEM Form 0008.  Comments were solicited last fall and they were limited.  One that was significant was that lessees should make available data they collect.  Certain wind data could be kept as proprietary and confidential.  The Form is silent on that subject.  Notwithstanding, the wind energy industry is enthusiastic about the Form.  Comments by The Offshore Wind Development Coalition felt that with 15 offshore wind projects on the blocks in the U.S., the Form "will provide an essential ingredient for continued progress."     

The Calls.  The Department of Interior also issued a "Call for Information and Nominations" for almost 80,000 acres approximately 10 miles off Ocean City, Maryland, and for a little more than 110,000 acres 23 miles off Virginia Beach, Virginia.   The Calls solicit any additional lease nominations and request public comments about "site conditions, resources and other existing uses of the identified area that would be relevant to BOEM’s potential leasing and development authorization process."  An earlier solicitation of interest for Maryland obtained nine "indications of interest" for commercial leases.  This interest is local, interstate and international.  The achievement of Maryland is the result of sustained effort to get to this point.  Since 2009, in a "state interagency marine spatial planning process" the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) worked  with "resource experts, user groups, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Towson University and the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) to compile data and information about habitats, human uses, and resources offshore Maryland."

Offshore wind farms are coming. "Blow the man down" is a 19th Century sea shanty chronicling the rough life of a mate aboard sailing packets plying the North Atlantic.  It may be time to update the reference.

Regulation | Renewable Energy | Wind Energy


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